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【科學新知】情境範文:動物的行為

    1Insects may be small, but they have brains just like you and I. 2__1__ 3Studies have shown that they have the ability to form a mental map, which allows them to remember where the best sources of food are located. 4Back in 1983, researcher James Gould undertook an experiment in which he placed a source of sugar water near a beehive, and then moved it 25 percent farther away from the hive each day, before ultimately placing it in a boat in the middle of a small lake. 5Each day, scout bees found the source, and reported back to the hive to lead other bees to the new location. 6__2__ 7This suggests that bees have the ability to figure out that it should be impossible to find their source of food in such an unusual place.

(A) Take honeybees, for example.

(B) However, when the sugar water was placed in the middle of the lake, the other bees refused to follow.

KEY: 1. __(A)__                2. __(B)__

 

大意

實驗證明蜜蜂有能力思考(figure out)是否要跟隨斥候蜂(scout bees)尋找食物的來源(the source of food)。

 

學習重點

1. 上下文的連結

    文章第1句提到昆蟲(insects)和你我一樣具有邏輯思維的能力(have brains)。空格1之後,要接續第3句說明他們(they)能夠在腦中建構地圖(form a mental map),找到食物來源的位置,第4句繼續延伸主題,提到在1983年,研究員James Gould用糖水做實驗(undertook an experiment),在實驗中,糖水相對於蜂巢(a beehive)的距離每天會增加百分之二十五。

    1句的主詞從 “insects” 轉移到了第3句的 “they”,而第4句又提到了關鍵字 “beehive”,由此可知,空格1的答案應選(A),藉由(A)句裡提到的 “honeybees”(蜜蜂),來驗證第3句的 “they”指的就是蜜蜂,而第4句的 “beehive” 指的就是 蜂巢

 

2. 語氣轉承詞

    文章第5句提及斥候蜂找到糖水的來源後會回報給蜂巢(reported back to the hive),然後引領其他蜜蜂到(每天更換的)新位置(the new location)。空格2之後,第7句的主詞 “This”(這點)引導句子,說明蜜蜂有能力算出他們應該不可能在這麼特殊的地方(in such an unusual place)找到食物來源。依常理判斷斥候蜂的功能就是先偵查食物來源,再回報正確位置給其他蜜蜂,但是第7句卻出現蜜蜂算出不可能在這種特別的地方找到食物,文章在這裡因為空格2而出現了語意的逆轉,因此這裡的答案應選(B),利用(B)句的語氣轉承詞 However(但是,然而)來協助文意來個大轉彎,應證當糖水被放置在湖中(in the middle of the lake)時,其他的蜜蜂會(因為糖水的位置太特殊)拒絕跟隨斥候蜂的引導(refused to follow)。因此證明了蜜峰有邏輯思維的能力。

 

其他相關字詞

brain (n.) 〔常用複數〕智力;邏輯思維能力

mental (a.) 思想的,智力的

source (n.) 來源,出處                

undertake an experiment 進行實驗

beehive (n.) 蜂巢

ultimately (adv.) 最後;最終

refuse (v.) 拒絕

figure out 理解;想出                         

 

99指考篇章結構試題

    1To investigate when cockroaches learn best, researchers at Vanderbilt University tested the insects for which odor (peppermint or vanilla) they preferred. 2Most cockroaches preferred the smell of vanilla to that of peppermint at all times. 3 _ 32   4Therefore, the scientists trained the cockroaches to prefer the peppermint smell by rewarding the insects with a taste of sugar water when they approached a peppermint smell. 5  33   (摘錄,全文請參閱大考中心網站)

(A) When these insects moved toward a vanilla smell, on the other hand, they were punished with a taste of salt.

(D) They were also found to like sugar water, but not salt water.

KEY: 32. __(D)__             33. __(A)__

 

試題說明:

本篇試題介紹蟑螂的學習效果與時間的早晚有關。要選出正確答案有兩個要點:

1. 瞭解上下文的連結

        本段一開始陳述研究人員以氣味作測試,調查蟑螂何時的學習效果最佳(when cockroaches learn best)。第2句提到「大部分的蟑螂總是比較喜歡香草味而非薄荷味(preferred the smell of vanilla to that of peppermint)」,接著又在第4句提到「研究人員以糖水作獎勵,訓練蟑螂喜歡薄荷味(to prefer the peppermint smell)」,因此推理蟑螂喜歡糖水(They were also found to like sugar water),才會用糖水來當作是學習的獎勵,所以第32題空格應填 (D)

       

2. 識別語氣轉承詞

        4 “Therefore”(因此)在引導一個表示結果的句子-因為蟑螂喜歡糖水(第3句),所以用糖水當作獎勵(第4句)。承接文意,第5句提到的是懲罰(they were punished with a taste of salt),而其中 “on the other hand”(另一方面)就有引出對照獎勵的語義-懲罰。所以第33題空格應填 (A)

 

 

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