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歷史與考古人類學】情境範文:聘金(dowry)的習俗

    1Ever since the suffrage movement of the early 20th century, women around the world have striven to gain equal footing with men. 2By and large, they have succeeded in many areas, challenging the traditional role of a woman as a homemaker, and seeing their salaries rise to be almost on par with those of their male counterparts. 3But practices that some see as being archaic relics, such as paying a bride price, still exist. 4According to this custom, the groom must give a certain amount of money or property to the parents of the bride in order to be granted permission to marry her. 5Though this practice has its supporters, some women’s rights groups contend that it reduces women to the level of mere property to be bought and sold. (130)

 

大意

從二十世紀早期開始,女性一直努力獲取和男性相同等的地位。他們成功地挑戰女性是操持家務者(homemaker)的傳統角色,也在薪資的調整上與男性幾乎一致。然而,聘禮(paying a bride price)的習俗依然存在。儘管有些人支持這項習俗,但是一些女權團體認為它貶低女性,使他們成為可以買賣的資產(property)。

 

學習重點:

1. 熟悉片語的字義及用法

1. by and large(總的來說,大體上來說)

(1) By and large, I think watching TV is a cheap way to kill time.(總的來說,我認為看電視是一種殺時間的便宜方式。)

(2) By and large, credit cards can be used as cash in many countries.(總的來說,在許多國家,信用卡被當作現金在使用。)

使用時機:我們可以使用by and large概略地說明某事;寫作時也可以用by and large引導一些概論性陳述的句子,放在文章一開始的地方,引進某個特定議題。

 

2. according to…(根據...;依照...

(1) According to newspaper reports, the gold price has reached its highest.(根據新聞報導,金價已創新高。)

(2) According to the scientists, human cloning is no longer pie in the sky.(根據科學家們的說法,複製人類已不再是不可能實現的計畫。)

使用時機:我們可以使用according to +名詞,說明資訊或想法從何而來,也可以用來銜接前後句文意。如範文的第4句中的according to the custom(根據這項習俗),用來銜接第3句提到的paying a bride price(聘禮)的儀式。

 

2. 了解並使用適當的字詞

those (n.) that的複數形,指前面提過的人、事、或物。範文第2句的those指的是前面提到的複數名詞salaries(薪資)。請看以下例句:

(1) The weather in Taipei is different from that in Kaohsiung. (台北的天氣和高雄的不一樣。)

(2) The jeans in this store are much more expensive than those in that store. (這家商店的牛仔褲比起那家的那些(牛仔褲)要貴的許多。)

使用時機:在同一句中,用來指前面提到的特定名詞,單數就用that(那個),如例1 “that”指的是前面提到的the weather(天氣);複數就用those(那些),如例2 “those”指的是前面的名詞jeans(牛仔褲)。

 

其他相關字詞

suffrage n.)投票權,參政權                  strive v.)力求,努力

footing n.)基礎,地位                            challenge v.)向…挑戰

on par with和…相等[同價]                          counterpart n.)相對應的人事物   

archaic (a.) 古代的                                                relic (n.) 〔常用複數〕遺跡;遺風   

permission (n.) 允許,同意                          contend (v.) 爭論,爭辯

property (n.) 資產;所有物

 

小試身手-克漏字練習

1. Some people would agree that study is hard work. ___1___, I pretty much enjoy being a student. ((A) In comparison    (B) By and large     (C) Accordingly      (D) To begin with)

2. Housing prices in London are much higher than ___2___ in Taichung. ((A) which  (B) that    (C) those  (D) what)

KEY: 1. (B)        2. (C)

 

98年指考-克漏字試題

1In spite of modernization and the increasing role of women in all walks of life, the practice of the dowry in India is still widespread. 2The dowry system, money or property brought by a bride to her husband at marriage, was started centuries ago with the intention of providing security for a girl   16   difficulties and unexpected circumstances after marriage. 3For this purpose, the parents gave   17   they could to their daughter, which consequently went to the groom’s family.

16.   (A) due to        (B) apart from (C) in case of   (D) with reference to

17.   (A) whoever    (B) whenever  (C) whatever   (D) whichever

(摘錄,全文請參閱大考中心網站)

Key: 16. (C) in case of    17. (C) whatever

試題說明:

本篇試題屬於【歷史與考古人類學】的情境文章,介紹印度盛行的嫁妝制度。

選出正確答案有兩個要點:

1. 熟悉片語的字義及用法

        2句在說明主詞-The dowry system(嫁妝制度)始於數個世紀之前,用意是提供婦女保障,以免他們在婚後遭遇困難或突發的狀況。搭配句意,第16題選(C) in case of(以免,萬一)。其餘選項皆不合文意:(A) due to(由於;因為),(B) apart from(除了之外)(D) with reference to(關於...

 

2. 了解並使用適當字詞

銜接第2句文意,第3句表明:為了這個目的,父母會盡其所能給予女兒任何可以(提供)的事物,讓女兒帶到夫家去。搭配文意,第17題選(C) whatever(任何的事物),當作gave(給予)的受詞。其餘選項皆不合文意:(A) whoever(無論是誰),(B) whenever(無論何時),(D) whichever(無論哪一個)。

 

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